The AmLight team presented the collaborative paper “Mitigating soft failures using network analytics and SDN to support distributed bandwidth-intensive scientific instruments over international networks” at the SubOptic Conference 2019. The conference was held in New Orleans, LA on 8-11 April 2019. A triennial event, SubOptic is the longest running and most comprehensive conference series in the world for the submarine fiber industry.
Abstract: With the consolidation of high-speed networks and worldwide scientific deployments, new experiments are being conducted remotely. The control and data gathering of these bandwidth-intensive mission-critical instruments require a reliable network infrastructure capable of reacting in real-time to soft failures, such as packet loss. To address the mission-critical real-time instruments’ Service Level Agreement (SLA), streaming telemetry and data-driven analytics are required. In recent years, the industry has created many open consortiums and specifications, such as OpenConfig and Inband Network Telemetry (INT). As a result, we have new levels of interconnections, interoperation, and disaggregation allowing Software-Defined Networking (SDN) applications to use protocol agnostic, common APIs, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to create reliable and adaptive networks. This paper aims to present the ongoing effort to create an adaptive network infrastructure capable of identifying and isolating soft failures in an automated approach to optimize bandwidth-intensive data transfers. Our approach leverages the most recent solutions offered by the optical and packet layers using SDN and network analytics.
Authors: Jeronimo Bezerra, Julio Ibarra (Florida International University); David Boertjes, Franco Santillo, Lance Williford (CIENA); Heidi Morgan (University of Southern California); Chip Cox (Vanderbilt University); and Luiz Lopez (University of Sao Paulo)
Highlights of the AmLight project were presented at Global 100G session at the Internet2 Global Summit on March 7 along with projects from ANA-100G, GÉANT, RedCLARA/RNP, and SINET. The session highlighted breakthrough initiatives enabling the first 100G research and education network around the world, pushing for greater connectivity around the globe. Efforts stemming from the Global Network Architecture (GNA), GÉANT and RedCLARA’s BELLA project directly connecting Europe and Latin America, Japan’s SINET 100G project are enabling researchers across the globe to realize 100G connectivity.
Dr. Julio Ibarra presented current status or regional network infrastructure and planned activities for continuing the building of express backbone and enhancing the resilience of the AmLight ExP project for 2019. The achievement of those goals will facilitate effective peering among academic networks and communities of interest in response to the network requirements from research communities and can succeed through cooperation and collaboration.
The AmLight Team participated in multiple Network Research Exhibition (NRE) demonstrations at the International Conference for High-Performance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis (SC18) held in Dallas, TX. NRE participants are invited to share the results of their demonstrations and experiments that display innovation in emerging network hardware, protocols, and advanced network-intensive scientific applications from the preceding year’s conference as part of the Innovating the Network for Data-Intensive Science (INDIS) workshop.
NRE-16: Global Petascale to Exascale Science Workflows Accelerated by Next Generation SDN Architectures and Applications
We demonstrated several major advances in software-defined and Terabit/sec networks, intelligent global operations and monitoring systems, workflow optimization methodologies with real-time analytics, and state of the art long distance data transfer methods and tools and server designs, to meet the challenges faced by leading-edge data intensive experimental programs in high energy physics, astrophysics, climate science including the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the Large Synoptic Space Telescope (LSST), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS II), the Earth System Grid Federation and others. Several of the SC18 demonstrations included a fundamentally new concept of “consistent network operations,” where stable load balanced high throughput workflows crossing optimally chosen network paths, up to preset high water marks to accommodate other traffic, provided by autonomous site-resident services dynamically interacting with network-resident services, in response to demands from the science programs’ principal data distribution and management systems. This was empowered by end-to-end SDN methods extending all the way to autoconfigured Data Transfer Nodes (DTNs), including intent-based networking APIs combined with transfer applications such as Caltech’s open source TCP based FDT which have been shown to match 100G long distance paths at wire speed in production networks. During the demos, the data flows were steered across regional, continental and transoceanic wide area networks through the orchestration software and controllers, and automated virtualization software stacks developed in the SENSE, PRP, AmLight, Kytos, and other collaborative projects. The DTNs employed used the latest high throughput SSDs and flow control methods at the edges such as FireQoS and/or Open vSwitch, complemented by NVMe over fabric installations in some locations.
Download the final NRE-16 demo submission (PDF)
For Caltech press release click here.
For Caltech SC18 demonstration details click here.
NRE-17: Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Real Time Low Latency Transfers for Scientific Processing Demonstrations
At SC18 in Dallas, Texas we experimented with data transfer rates, using 100Gig FIONA Data Transfer Nodes (a.k.a. DTNs) in Chile and Illinois. The demos aimed to achieve three goals: First, we demonstrate real-time low latency transfers for scientific processing of multi-Gigabyte images from the LSST base station site in La Serena, Chile, flowing over the REUNA Chilean National Research & Education Network (NREN), as well as ANSP and RNP Brazilian national circuits and the AmLight-ExP Atlantic and Pacific Ring through AMPATH2 to Starlight and NCSA. Second, we simulated operational and data quality traffic to SLAC, Tucson and other sites including the Dallas show floor. Third, we stress tested the AmLight ExP network to simulate the LSST annual multi-petabyte Data Release from NCSA to La Serena at rates consistent with those required for LSST operations.
Download the final NRE-17 demo submission (PDF).
See the official LSST press release online.
NRE-18: Americas Lightpaths Express and Protect Enhances Infrastructure for Research and Education
Americas Lightpaths Express and Protect (AmLight ExP) enables research and education amongst the people of the Americas through the operation of production infrastructure for communication and collaboration between the U.S. and Western Hemisphere science and engineering research and education communities. AmLight ExP supports a hybrid network strategy that combines optical spectrum (Express) and leased capacity (Protect) that provides a reliable, leading-edge diverse network infrastructure for research and education.
AmLight-ExP supported the LSST and LHC-related use cases in association with high throughput low latency experiments, and demonstrations of auto-recovery from network events, using its 100G ring network that interconnects the research and education communities in the U.S. and South America. These use cases and demonstrations highlighted AmLight-ExP and its multifaced roles for networking in support of the collaborative work by many teams in the US and Latin America. In addition, the demonstrations featured the research and education networks participating in AmLight-ExP, referred to as the AmLight Consortium.
As part of this support, during the course of the LSST and AmLight ExP SC18 demonstrations, Dark Energy Camera (DECam) public data from the AURA site in Chile arrived via AmLight at both the KISTI and Caltech booths in Dallas, where it was mirrored and carried across SCinet, Starlight, KRLight and KREONet2 to DTNs at KISTI and KASI in Korea. Throughputs of 58 Gbps were achieved across the 60 Gbps path from the telescope site to the KISTI booth and a remarkable 99.7 Gbps on the 100 Gbps path between Dallas and Daejeon.
Download the final NRE-18 demo submission (PDF)
More details about the SC18 can be found here
 The AmLight Consortium is a group of not-for-profit universities, state, national and regional research and education networks including the AmLight ExP project at Florida International University, AURA, LSST, RNP, ANSP, Clara, REUNA, FLR, Telecom Italia Sparkle, and Internet2.
November 20, 2018 – The LSST Network Engineering Team (NET) had a strong presence at the Supercomputing 2018 Conference (SC18) in Dallas, TX, last week, including a successful demonstration of the data transfer capabilities of the fiber optic networks that will be used during LSST operations. Digital data were transferred from the Base Site in La Serena, Chile, to the LSST Data Facility at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) in Champaign, IL. During the data transfer demonstration, a peak rate of 100 Gigabits/second (Gb/s) was achieved for short periods, and a sustained rate of 80 Gb/s was achieved over a three hour period, exceeding the test target. This test was run over links provisioned by several networking organizations: REUNA from La Serena to Santiago, FIU/Amlight from Santiago to Miami, SCInet from Miami to Chicago (Starlight), and NCSA from Chicago to Champaign. SCInet links provided by CenturyLink and internet2 were used to transfer the data from Miami to Chicago because LSST 100 Gb/s links will not be available in that path until FY20. All of the other links were those that will be used by LSST during operations.
Data Transfer Nodes (DTN) configured in La Serena and Champaign with nuttcp (a network performance measurement tool) generated a sustained memory-to-memory data rate over 80 Gb/s, over a period of three hours. Simultaneously, the DTNs, using the Fermilab Multicore-Aware Data Transfer Middleware (MDTM) software, achieved a peak of 36 Gb/s transferring 200 Gigabytes of DECam public data (FITS files) provided by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Note that in LSST operations, there will be over 20 DTNs (aka archiver/forwarders) simultaneously sending data, so each one will require far less than 36 Gb/s. In addition, on the Champaign end the files were ingested into a GPFS shared file system, and a Jupyter Notebook running an application provided by LSST Data Management was used to visualize the files. Finally, an additional test transfer from Champaign to La Serena is being conducted and has so far achieved a peak of 40 Gb/s, sufficient for the annual transfer of LSST Data Releases to Chile.
Instrumentation in the DTNs and links and Grafana software were used to provide a real-time, web display of network performance during the demonstration. This was monitored live from the NCSA booth at the Supercomputing 2018 Conference. A number of conference attendees witnessed the demonstration and presentation, and participated in a question and answer session.
According to LSST NET Lead Jeff Kantor, “This demonstration shows not only that we have continuity and performance from the network point of view, but also that all of the partners acted as a very well-coordinated engineering team for LSST.”
Congratulations to the LSST NET SC18 Demonstration Team:
Albert Astudillo (REUNA)
Jeronimo Bezerra (FIU/AmLight)
Julio Ibarra (FIU/AmLight)
Sandra Jaque (REUNA)
Matt Kollross (UIUC/NCSA)
Ron Lambert (LSST/AURA)
Sean McManus (NOAO)
Wil O’Mullane (LSST/AURA)
Rodrigo Pescador (RNP)
Andres Villalobos (LSST/AURA)
Adil Zahir (FIU/AmLight)
Additional support was provided by a number of other people within these organizations. We are particularly grateful to SCInet, Starlight, and Fermilab for enabling this demonstration.
Original LSST article published here
April 11, 2018 – The LSST Network Engineering Team is pleased to announce the first successful transfer of digital data over LSST/AURA 100 gigabit per second fiber optic networks from the Summit Site on Cerro Pachón, Chile to the Base Site in La Serena, Chile and on to the Archive Site at NCSA in Champaign, IL. This event took place in December 2017 and demonstrated not only performance and continuity across all hardware segments of the network, but a well-coordinated effort by multiple international engineering teams in support of LSST.
This challenge, driven by the “astronomical” needs of LSST to transport data from Cerro Pachón to NCSA for processing, and to distribute data from Cerro Pachón to the rest of Chile and the world, was the motivation for this international collaboration. AURA coordinated the project in conjunction with REUNA in Chile, and in the United States with FIU/AmLightand NCSA. At the international level, the joint work with FIU/AmLight demonstrated transcontinental infrastructures that ensure the data flow to the United States is coherent and reliable.
This scientific and technological milestone marks the first stage of a project at the Chilean national level, which is part of REUNA’s 2018-2021 Strategic Plan that will provide a platform for the collaborative development of science and education, suitable for transmission and analysis of real time data obtained from the Universe. It will have an impact on multiple research areas, such as computer science, mathematics, physics, and others, enabling them in the new era of Big Data Science.
In Chile, the 800 km network between Cerro Pachón, La Serena, and Santiago has an initial capacity of 10Tbps (96 optical channels of 100Gbps each) with an “unlimited” potential growth bound to technology development. For example, there are already prototypes of 400 Gbps channels, which would quadruple the capacity.
In the first data transfer carried on this new network, a set of 6 x 10 Gbps network interface cards in data transfer nodes (DTN) configured with iPerf3 software generated a sustained data rate of approximately 48 gigabits per second, during a 24-hour period. This exceeded the test objective of 40 gigabits per second.
It should be noted that this project began on December 5th, 2014, with the public announcement by AURA, REUNA, and Telefónica of the implementation of the digital infrastructure between Santiago and Cerro Pachón. The Chilean Ministry of Economy supported the announcement.
Currently, professionals from AURA (Chile and the USA), REUNA (Chile), Florida International University (USA), AmLight (USA), RNP (Brazil), and UI NCSA (USA) participate in the LSST Network Engineering Team (NET), which provides the means to engineer end-to-end network performance across multiple network domains and providers.
It is also important to mention the role played by private companies in the development of these infrastructures. In the case of Chile, Telefónica has been a strategic partner with a vision of collaboration with the National Academic Network in the technological development of the country. In the case of the USA, Internet2 and Florida LambdaRail have been long-term collaborators, supporting FIU/AmLight and the astronomy community in Chile.
Original article published here: https://project.lsst.org/lighting-lsst-fiber-optic-network-summit-base-archive
AmLigth Team presented Americas Africa Research and eduCation Lightpaths (AARCLight) Study findings for year one (NSF award #1638990), AtlanticWave-SDX (NSF award#1451024), and current status and future goals for the AmLight Express and Protect (AmLight-ExP)(NSF award #1451018) projects at the IRNC PI Meeting at the Internet2 Global Summit.
The 2018 Internet2 Global Summit, co-hosted by CENIC, University of California San Diego and San Diego State University, features keynote addresses from top R&E leaders, presentations from noted experts, and sessions focused on advanced and trusted infrastructure, identity, federation and access management, and solutions for researchers with the goal of benefiting the entire research and education ecosystem.
The research and higher education community has a long-standing history of pioneering disruptive and breakthrough technologies in pursuit of advancing scholarship, scientific research, and new discoveries. The community also is known for engaging in mutual-interest collaboration across a diverse set of communities to solve common challenges for the benefit of all.
Internet2 plays a vital role in connecting people, networks, technologies and solutions across the broader research and education ecosystem. Working together, the community continues to transform and elevate the development of revolutionary innovations in network and infrastructure technologies–from building the world’s fastest network, to meeting expanding global needs, to growing an extensive portfolio of end-to-end network services, cloud services, and trust and identity capabilities–for the benefit of educators across the world.
The R&E community and Internet2 are now at a key inflection point–one that presents an incredible opportunity to move forward, reshape our collective thinking and once again take a leadership role in the broader technology landscape. With a leadership transition, an upcoming network infrastructure refresh and advanced and ongoing developments in trust and identity, now is the time to set our collective course for the future. Together we can continue to accelerate discovery and advance national and global research and education.
WRNP 2018 brings debates around e-Science, cloud computing, and STI policies
Members of the research community will meet at the Campos do Jordão Convention Center, in the state of São Paulo, for the 19th edition of the RNP Workshop (WRNP 2018). The initiative aims to broaden discussions on the advances of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), both in Brazil and abroad. The event will be held on May 07 and 08, along with the 36th Brazilian Symposium on Computer Networks and Distributed Systems (SBRC), which will happen in São Paulo for the first time in 21 years.
Through panels and technical sessions, Brazilian and foreign experts will point possible paths to encourage new ideas and stimulate future advances in the Brazilian academic network infrastructure. This year, the workshop program focuses on e-Science services, cloud computing, and STI policies for research and innovation, in addition to a joint panel with SBRC to debate innovation.
There will also be technology demonstrations for different projects of the Brazilian National Research and Educational Network (RNP) R&D programs. Among them, the Working Groups in Advanced Services and Advanced Internet, the experimentation platforms (testbeds) for innovation, and the initiatives of three coordinated calls with the United States and the European Union. Together, all three international calls, in the last three years, have already amounted investments of around 53.6 million reals for research. These international technical cooperation projects are conducted between research and educational institutions and Brazilian companies, with partners from different countries.
José Rezende, a researcher at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and coordinator of the Committee for the WRNP Program, explains that this meeting will benefit the academic community with an exchange of experiences and new perspectives. “Amplifying knowledge is only possible through the research process. With discussions, we encourage new ideas about network platforms and possible technological tendencies for the development of new knowledge,” assures Rezende.
The complete program and registration for the event can be found at the official website: wrnp.rnp.br.
19th Brazilian National Research and Educational Network Workshop (WRNP 2018)
Date: May 07 and 08, 2018
Location: Convention Center, Campos do Jordão – SP.
Transmission link: http://video.rnp.br/portal/transmissao/wrnp2018-english
About RNP: qualified as a Social Organization (OS), the Brazilian National Research and Educational Network (Rede Nacional de Ensino e Pesquisa – RNP) is linked to and maintained by the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Communication (MCTIC), along with the Ministries of Education (MEC), Culture (MinC), Health (MS), and Defense (MD), all of which participate in the RNP Inter-Ministerial Program (PI-RNP). A pioneer in Internet access in Brazil, RNP plans, operates and maintains the Ipe Network, a national high-performance optical academic infrastructure. Present in 27 units of the federation, the network connects 1,197 campuses and units in capitals and interior cities. Over 4 million users enjoy an advanced network infrastructure for communication, computing, and experimentation, which contributes to the integration of Science and Technology, Superior Education, Health, Culture, and Defense systems.
Advanced ICT is the core of the global network of research & education networks, but these critical networks are made up of much more than fiber, pipes, routers, and switches.
Research & education networking infrastructure traverses the globe, enabling access to content and resources, connecting people, delivering new experiences, fostering collaboration and cultivating interdisciplinary communities striving to make a difference.
This blog embodies that very spirit, bringing the research & education network community together in a global collaboration with users and beneficiaries to showcase and share some of our most inspiring stories and achievements.
To submit your story, please visit “in The FIELD” at https://www.inthefieldstories.net/
Co-Founder CIARA FIU
Information Science Institute USC
Miami, Florida, March 29, 2018 – Florida International University’s Center for Internet Augmented Research and Assessment (CIARA) is pleased to announce two new points-of-presence operating at 100G as part of the five-year AmLight-ExP (IRNC BACKBONE: Americas Lightpaths Express and Protect) NSF Award#ACI-1451018.
On February 23rd and March 8th, the AmLight network engineering team finished installing two 100G links in Fortaleza, Brazil, and two 100G links in Santiago, Chile, respectively. With these new 100G links, researchers and students in these countries will have access to a new network infrastructure with ten times more bandwidth, enhancing international academic collaboration. The links are provided as part of the NSF IRNC AmLight Express and Protect project and the AmLight Consortium: a group of not-for-profit universities, state, national and regional research and education networks including the AmLight ExP project at Florida International University, AURA, LSST, RNP, ANSP, Clara, REUNA, FLR, Telecom Italia Sparkle, and Internet2. The figure represents the new AmLight-ExP map including new sites operating at 100G.
Dr. Julio Ibarra, Assistant Vice President of Technology Augmented Research at FIU, said “Santiago, Chile and Fortaleza, Brazil are strategic locations geographically in the southern hemisphere. By adding Santiago and Fortaleza to the AmLight-ExP 100G ring, the collaborative research and education activities between the U.S. and the nations in South America can rely on a more resilient and higher throughput network infrastructure.”
Dr. Chris Smith, Head of Mission AURA Observatory in Chile said “This network represents a fundamental strategic investment by the NSF in the advancement of science internationally. While it is mission critical for NSF’s newest flagship astronomical facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), under construction by AURA in Chile and the USA, it also enhances the operational capabilities of all of the astronomical facilities in Chile, including the existing NSF facilities of NOAO, Gemini, and ALMA as well as the many smaller university-led projects that are located in northern Chile to take advantage of the excellent observational conditions there.”
Jeffrey Kantor, of the LSST Project Management Office, said, “This development will enable LSST to realize a reliable, high-speed network connecting LSST sites in Chile and the United States. This network will permit LSST data to travel in seconds to our LSST Data Facility at the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) where it is processed into real-time alerts of transient events and annual data releases ultimately containing billions of galaxies and stars.”
“The new 100G AmLight-ExP links form a ring Miami-Fortaleza-São Paulo-Santiago-Miami, by making this capacity also available in Santiago and Fortaleza. This ring will soon be connected in Fortaleza, to the future 100G cables Ellalink (from Portugal) and SACS (from Angola), forming what is to be called the South Atlantic Crossroads (SAX)”, said Dr. Michael Stanton, Director of Research and Development at Brazil’s National Research and Education Network, RNP.
Eduardo Grizendi, Director of Engineering & Operation at Brazil’s National Research and Education Network, RNP, said “With these activations, we are completing a network infrastructure of excellence for the next years, of 100G high capacity, robust and redundant, to support international academic collaboration, especially between the Americas.”
“Reliable high bandwidth connectivity has been always a challenge in a continental country like Brazil, plenty of rainforests and economic difficulties. This great work of RNP with Brazillian electricity companies, will allow us to extend a 100G backbone from the extreme northern rainforest to the southern planes. This first inauguration shows it is indeed possible at a payable price and that RNP can and is doing it. No need to say how important this is to the national and international scientific collaboration in the American continent”, said Dr. Luis Lopez, Principal Investigator (PI) of ANSP.
About CIARA: Florida International University’s Center for Internet Augmented Research and Assessment (CIARA), in the Division of IT, has developed an international, high-performance research connection point in Miami, Florida, called AMPATH (AMericasPATH; www.ampath.net). AMPATH extends participation to underrepresented groups in Latin America and the Caribbean, in science and engineering research and education through the use of high-performance network connections. AMPATH is home to the Americas Lightpaths (AmLight) high-performance network links connecting Latin America to the U.S., funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), award #ACI-0963053 and the Academic Network of São Paulo (award #2003/13708-0). (http://ciara.fiu.edu/)
About ANSP: The Academic Network of São Paulo (ANSP) provides connectivity to the top R&E institutions, facilities and researchers in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, including the University of São Paulo, the largest research university in South America. ANSP directly connects to AmLight in Miami at 20G. ANSP also provides connectivity to Kyatera, a 9-city dark-fiber-based optical network infrastructure linking 20 research institutions in the state and a number of special infrastructure projects like GridUNESP, one of the largest computational clusters in Latin America, supporting interdisciplinary grid-based science. (www.ansp.br)
About AURA: The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) is a consortium of 40 US institutions and 4 international affiliates that operates world-class astronomical observatories. AURA’s role is to establish, nurture, and promote public observatories and facilities that advance innovative astronomical research. In addition, AURA is deeply committed to public and educational outreach, and to diversity throughout the astronomical and scientific workforce. AURA carries out its role through its astronomical facilities. (www.aura-astronomy.org)
About LSST: Financial support for LSST comes from the National Science Foundation (NSF) through Cooperative Agreement No. 1258333, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515, and private funding raised by the LSST Corporation. The NSF-funded LSST Project Office for construction was established as an operating center under management of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The DOE-funded effort to build the LSST camera is managed by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC). (www.lsst.org).
About CLARA: CLARA, the Latin American Cooperation of Advanced Networks (Cooperación Latino Americana de Redes Avanzadas), is a non-profit organization whose members are the NRENs of Latin America, and which is in charge of the management, development and operation of RedCLARA as well as the coordination of Latin America’s research networking activities. RedCLARA directly connects to AmLight links in São Paulo, Santiago, Miami and Tijuana. Latin American NRENs connected to RedCLARA: Argentina (Innova-Red), Brazil (RNP) ,Chile (REUNA), Colombia (RENATA), Costa Rica (RedCONARE), Ecuador (CEDIA), El Salvador (RAICES), Guatemala (RAGIE), México (CUDI), Panamá (RedCYT), Perú (RAAP), Uruguay (RAU) and Venezuela (REACCIUN). (www.redclara.net)
About Florida LambdaRail: Florida LambdaRail (FLR) is Florida’s Research and Education Network. With its 100 Gbps 1,540 mile dark fiber network, FLR provides a cost effective, ultra-high speed, inter-connected, broadband service delivery network that enables Florida’s higher education institutions and partners to collaborate, connect, utilize and develop new innovative broadband applications and services in support of their scientific research, education, and 21st century economy initiatives. (www.flrnet.org)
About Internet2: Internet2® is a member-owned advanced technology community founded by the nation’s leading higher education institutions in 1996. Internet2 provides a collaborative environment for U.S. research and education organizations to solve common technology challenges, and to develop innovative solutions in support of their educational, research, and community service missions. Internet2 consists of more than 250 U.S. universities, 80 leading corporations, 70 affiliate members and government agencies, 39 regional and state education networks and more than 65 national research and education networking partners representing more than 100 countries. Internet2 offices are located in Ann Arbor, Mich.; Emeryville, Calif.; and Washington, D.C. (www.internet2.edu)
About REUNA (Chile): Red Universitaria Nacional, REUNA, provides a leading digital platform that articulates, connects, and fosters collaboration between those entities that based in Chile belong to the fields of science, education, and the Chilean local culture, connecting them to the rest of the world throughout innovating services. With over 20 years’ experience and currently made up of 31 institutions, REUNA’s digital platform covers 13 regions between the northern city of Arica and the southern city of Osorno. (www.reuna.cl/en/)
About RNP: The Brazilian Education and Research Network (RNP), qualified as a Social Organization (OS) by the Brazilian government, is supervised by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), and is maintained through the inter-ministerial RNP program, which also includes the Ministries of Education (MEC), Health (MS) and Culture (MinC). The first Internet provider in Brazil with national coverage, RNP operates a high-performance nationwide network, with points of presence in all 26 states and the national capital, providing service to over 1200 distinct locations. RNP’s more than four million users are making use of an advanced network infrastructure for communication, computation and experimentation, which contributes to the integration of the national systems of Science, Technology and Innovation, of Higher Education, of Health and of Culture. (www.rnp.br/en)